The varicose disease

varicose veins

Varicose vein disease is an extension of saphenous veins with a diameter more than 3 mm of Varicose veins develop due to the violation of work of venous valves and of the weakness of the vein wall; thus there is a slowing of the blood flow of the lower limbs, an increase of the pressure inside the vein, which can lead to chronic venous insufficiency.

Sometimes, telangiectasia and reticular vienna confused varicose veins advanced.

It is the vein with a diameter of 3 mm and less, they do not affect the venous reflux, but cause explicit cosmetic defects.

What is the prevalence of varicose veins?

Varicose saphenous veins present in 30% of women and 15% of men of middle age. The prevalence of varicose veins of the lower limbs increases substantially with age and is present in most people aged over 60 years. The proportion of patients with trophic disorders in the adult age is only 1.8%, while in the old age, the rate rises to 20%. In this case, every fifth patient in the life of a meeting with thrombophlebitis. Among the reasons that lead to loss of work capacity, the share of debilitating forms of disease of the veins more than the arteries.

The main risk factors of varicose veins are:

  • at the age
  • the female sex
  • pregnancy
  • hormonal disorders
  • a family history

The additional risk factors:

  • all
  • the hypertension
  • constipation

The literature data by other risk factors are conflicting. The risk of development of venous disease is low.

How to manifest Varicose veins?

the varicose disease

The most common manifestation – bulging above the surface of the skin uneven dilated veins. In some cases, they can be barely noticeable or determined only by the touch, others take sinuous forms with the formation of knots or similar to those of the great vine the cluster.

Often the varicose disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • a sense of gravity and tension in the legs
  • the pain, pulling and/or whining of the nature along the veins
  • the tiredness of the legs
  • itching of the skin of calves

Rarely varicose vein disease can cause the restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg cramps.

What are the dangers of the progression of varicose veins?

In the absence of treatment, the progression of the varicose veins can lead to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The presence of CVI, bear witness to the serious violations of the lymph in the venous return (the clinical classes C3-C6 CEAP classification), which include: a swelling (chronic lymphedema), to change the colour of the skin (hyperpigmentation), venous eczema, the skin of a seal, trophic venous ulceration.

What are the complications of varicose veins?

Thrombophlebitis – the formation of a blood clot in the superficial venous system, is an event faced by the 20% of patients with varicose veins-dilated veins. This thrombosis is accompanied expressed by painful sensations, redness of the skin, the seal of the road to vienna on the tibia and/or of the hip. In the absence of treatment it is possible to distribute to the masses thrombotic deep venous.

complications of varicose veins

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – in most cases, the beginning of a process asymptomatic. During the broadcast of the thrombosis on the segment and the veins of the basin disrupted the main flow of blood in the lower extremities, which is accompanied by the edema is pronounced and the syndrome, and is considered life-threatening situation.

Thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries (EP) - in 10% of cases thrombotic mass in the deep veins of the lower limbs and fragmented, with a current of blood migrate into the pulmonary arteries, as a cause of death.

What is necessary for a good diagnosis?

Given the diversity of forms of diseases of the veins, for a diagnosis, every detail is important to the history of the development of the disease and of the life of the patient, presence of comorbidities carried over from the operation, the result of the external inspection by your doctor and most importantly - ultra-duplex scanning of the vein. The latter is, to this day, is the most informative, accurate and non-invasive method of the study of the veins of the lower limbs.

Varicose veins treatment the most common ways:

  • Drug treatment – weno-toning of medications have proven their efficacy in the reduction of the symptoms of varicose vein disease, but you are not able to eliminate the varicose veins. Pharmacotherapy successfully applied for the prevention of complications in at-risk groups, pre-operative preparation and rehabilitation postoperatively.
  • Compression and treatment - to wear a special medical of the shirt in the shape of golf, stockings, tights. In some cases, apply laminated banding rubber bands of different distensibility and material of the pneumatic compression. The role of compression therapy is difficult to overestimate, it is present in almost each step of the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases of the vein.
  • The introduction into the lumen of the vein drug that can cause its closure. This method is the gold standard, eliminate the reticular veins. Applied with success in the treatment of varicose veins is not of large diameter and which has limitations in the resolution of the disease of the blood circulation of the trunk of the saphenous veins.
  • The typical operation – combined phlebectomy, in a modern setting is done as an outpatient procedure under spinal or local anesthesia. In some cases, – it is the only practical way, when the targets of vienna, highly convoluted and/or have large extensions. However, the method yields an endo-vascular procedures travmatichnosti.
  • Endo black laser obliteration – a method of treatment of varicose veins, that vienna is not deleted, and closes the internal energy of the laser radiation, which is brought directly to the inside of the optical fiber. The effectiveness of the procedure is comparable with the results of the surgical removal of the vein, however, is characterized by a minimum of travmatichnostyu. The time of the rehabilitation of 1-3 days.
  • The radio frequency obliteration progressive solution pathological to the blood circulation of the trunk of the saphenous veins. It is completely an outpatient procedure performed under local anesthesia. The effectiveness of the treatment corresponds to a classical phlebectomy, the syndrome of the pain is low or absent. The rehabilitation time for 1-2 days.