Varicose veins are a disease that almost every woman faces at some stage in her life. In the early stages, the disease can be asymptomatic. How to recognize the first signs of varicose veins of the legs in women and prevent their further development, we will consider in this article.
Varicose veins are a disease associated with the expansion of the saphenous veins. In this case, the outflow of blood is disturbed, which leads to congestion. The triggering factor for the development of the disease can be uncomfortable shoes, physical inactivity, overweight, pregnancy or genetic predisposition. Most often, the pathology affects the lower limbs, the expansion of the veins of the small pelvis, uterus and esophagus is much less common.
As you know, the heart muscle maintains full blood circulation in the body. The natural pump is assisted by gravity. Thanks to this, the blood supplies nutrients to the limbs.
Special valves in the veins help to repel blood. Their functioning supports regular muscle contraction and relaxation. If this process is interrupted and the valve flaps do not open or close in time, blood stagnation occurs.
This puts too much pressure on the veins, stretching and weakening them. Then the edges of the vessels begin to appear in the form of bluish knots under the skin, signaling the presence of varicose veins.
Causes of the disease
Stagnant processes in the veins are caused by a combination of factors. So, among the reasons for the development of varicose veins in women:
- sitting or standing for a long time;
- wear high-heeled shoes, tight socks, tight clothing;
- flat feet;
- hormonal disorders;
- frequent consumption of alcohol;
- genetic predisposition;
- acquired or congenital connective tissue weakness.
- Gender: The fair sex is more susceptible to varicose veins than men.
Important!Women whose mothers or grandmothers have varicose veins fall into a special risk group. The probability of developing pathologies in this case is 70%.
Carefully avoiding the factors that contribute to stagnation of blood in the veins will help overcome the predisposition.
How it manifests itself
Many people pay attention to varicose veins only after the formation of a vascular network on the surface of the skin. But if you recognize varicose veins at an early stage, this will help prevent the disease even before its visual manifestation.
So, among the symptoms of the disease:
- burning sensation and heaviness in the legs;
- swelling of the limbs;
- night cramps;
- dull pain in the legs, aggravated at the end of the working day;
- manifestation of veins on the skin with the possibility of palpation;
- uneven pigmentation of the skin.
Important!If the disease worsens, which is accompanied by a deterioration in general health, weakness and fever, immediately consult a specialist.
Doctors classify six stages of varicose veins. They all differ in the severity and nature of the course of the disease.
So there it is:
- Stage 0- the patient feels the discomfort inherent in the varicose veins (cramps, swelling, pain in the legs), but the disease has not yet manifested itself visually and cannot be traced throughmedical research.
- First stage- the above symptoms are accompanied by the formation of a vascular network on the skin surface.
- 2nd stage- "authentic" varicose veins. The veins are clearly visible on the skin surface and palpable after exertion at the end of the day.
- 3rd stage- pain is complemented by persistent edema that appears in the evening.
- 4th stage- manifestation of trophic changes in tissues (uneven pigmentation - red spots on the skin).
- 5th stage- formation of trophic ulcers. Possibility of treatment.
- 6th stage- active trophic ulcer (open bleeding wound). Persistent tissue malnutrition.
Without proper treatment, varicose veins can enter an acute phase.
- rupture of varicose veins, accompanied by bleeding;
- phlebothrombosis - complete or partial blockade of a vein from a thrombus;
- thrombophlebitis - the entry of blood clots into the pulmonary artery. Leads to death without medical treatment;
- trophic ulcer is a soft tissue injury with the risk of gangrene development.
The choice of tactics to combat the disease depends on the stage of varicose veins, the general condition of the patient and his individual characteristics. To detect pathology, diagnostics is performed, in which a phlebologist is engaged.
Detection of the disease is done using:
- tourniquet test: allows you to evaluate the degree of filling of the veins during exercise;
- Doppler ultrasound - ultrasound examination of the venous cavity;
- angiography: the study of the lumen of a vein using an x-ray.
Diagnostics allows you to develop effective treatment tactics that will help avoid irreversible changes in the walls of blood vessels.
Ignoring the symptoms of varicose veins can lead to thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism and other life-threatening conditions. Meanwhile, the treatment of the disease in the early stages gives good results, allowing to maintain the patient's quality of life.
Treatment options for varicose veins:
- traditional medicine.
Conservative treatment is used in the early stages of the development of the pathology. It involves the complex use of such medicines:
- phlebotonics- restores vascular tone, relieves swelling and pain;
- anticoagulants- improves blood circulation, prevents the formation of blood clots;
- anti-inflammatory- removes inflammation, pain and swelling;
- gel- have a tonic and anti-inflammatory effect.
The use of these drugs is only allowed under medical supervision. The drugs are taken both orally and by injection. External use of creams and ointments is possible as an aid.
Success in the fight against disease often helps to achieve:
- Hydrothepia- a variable variation of the water temperature directed to the affected area, which increases the elasticity and firmness of the veins.
- Sclerotherapy- gluing a vein with a sclerosing preparation, which excludes the vessel from circulation and leads to its complete disappearance. The procedure is performed using a special needle without using a scalpel, it does not require hospitalization of the patient.
- Compression stockings or tights,toning the vessels. They help prevent and stop varicose veins at an early stage.
To facilitate the course of varicose veins, you can also use an elastic bandage, which is used both in the early stages of the disease, and in advanced cases. It exerts uniform pressure on the tissues, which maintains blood circulation and vascular tone. Bandaging the legs will reduce discomfort, relieve swelling and a feeling of heaviness in the limbs.
A way to bandage the leg:
- bends the limb at the knee;
- fingertip bandage;
- covers the heel with three turns;
- move to the lower leg and ankle;
- stop bandaging 10 cm before the veins damaged by varicose veins;
- fasten the end with a tie;
Important!Check your feelings for 15 minutes: the bandage should not press too hard, while the toes should not turn pale or blue.
To avoid errors in bandaging in the early stages, it is necessary to enlist the help of a specialist.
Surgery is a more radical treatment that is used when other methods are ineffective. It is indicated for patients with persistent circulatory disorders, tissue trophism, narrowing of the lumen of the veins, ulcers and bleeding.
In the fight against varicose veins, the most effective are:
- stripping- removal of the affected area by introducing a thin probe into the vessel lumen. Advantages: painless, fast recovery, excellent cosmetic effect, low probability of relapse;
- miniflebectomy- removal of a vein through a puncture. It is performed under general or spinal anesthesia. It leaves scars on the skin, but shows high efficiency and preserves the patient's ability to work;
- TIPP (Transluminal Flebectomy)is an innovative method in which a probe with an illuminant source is passed along the affected vein. Allows you to see the affected area accurately. The vein is removed under local anesthesia, which minimizes the pain of the procedure for the patient;
- ligation- ligation of a vein with a surgical thread. Acts as a complement to previous methods. Contraindicated for patients with open bleeding, diseases of the cardiovascular system.
As a rule, folk remedies are used in the early stages of the development of the disease. They reduce the severity of external manifestations and help get rid of swelling and pain.
Important!It should be remembered that self-treatment of varicose veins with folk remedies can harm the body. Before using them, you need to consult a specialist.
Self-prepared remedies can be used as a supplement to the main treatment.
- Horse chestnut tincture.Peel the chestnuts (300 grams). In a glass container, pour them with alcohol (200 ml). Insist for two weeks in a dark place. Take 30 drops orally three times a day, after main meals. It can be used externally to improve blood circulation. The course of treatment is one month. The use of such a tincture thins the blood and increases the tone of the vascular walls.
- Decoction of oak bark.Pour boiling water over the oak bark (1 tablespoon) (1 glass). Heat the mixture for 20 minutes. Insist for 1 hour. Consume 3 times a day for 1 tbsp. L. before meals.
- Apple cider vinegar pack.Dip the gauze in natural apple cider vinegar (pure or diluted) and apply it on the site of the varicose veins, wrapping it with cellophane and a towel. During the procedure, you should put your feet on a platform. The duration of the session is half an hour. The course lasts 1-2 months. Daily application of the compress will help get rid of edema, give the vessels elasticity and strengthen their walls.
- Celandine juice pack.Moisten the bandages with celandine juice and apply them to the place of manifestation of the disease. Keep for 4 hours. The course of treatment is 7 days. After a short break, you can repeat the procedure. Using this compress will help restore microcirculation of tissues and improve the outflow of blood to the affected area.
- Foot baths.Take 200 grams of chamomile tea, fill it with water (3 liters). Boil the mixture for 10 minutes. When the broth has cooled to room temperature, pour it into a bowl and lower the legs. The duration of the procedure is 20-30 minutes. Such a bath perfectly copes with painful sensations and cramps.
Complex use of these funds will help alleviate the course of the disease, relieve pain, a feeling of heaviness and external manifestations.
Massage can be used as an alternative treatment. In this case, the movements of the hands should be light without pressure, the direction should be from the feet to the hips. You can also use pneumomassage or hydromassage, which are performed in specialized centers. Such procedures tone and improve blood flow.
Important!The massage can be used in the initial phase of the disease or as a prophylaxis. With pronounced varicose veins, its use is strictly prohibited!
The following sports are suitable for women with varicose veins:
- to walk;
- easy to perform;
- medical gymnastics;
- aerobic (without jumps);
- by bicycle.
The choice of the nature of physical activity depends on the stage of the disease and the severity of its course. The presence of a blood clot is a contraindication to active sports. Also, people with varicose veins should avoid strength training and excessively intense training.
Performing simple exercises will help alleviate the course of the disease and even eliminate it completely:
- Riding an imaginary bike: Lie on your back with your knees bent. Turn the "pedals" while lifting the body. Duration: 2 minutes.
- Sit on the floor. Put your hands behind your back. Perform the lifts with the left leg even, while the right leg is on the ground bent at the knee. Repeat 5 times, two approaches on both legs.
- Lie on your back, lifting your body. Bending your knees, pull them up to your chin and then straighten them. 20 repetitions.
Moderate physical activity will help improve tissue trophism and prevent further development of varicose veins.
Prevention of varicose veins should be started without waiting for the manifestation of the disease.
Following these rules will help prevent the development of diseases:
- Modify your diet: include fruits and vegetables, reduce the amount of salt, sugar and fat.
- Take a contrast shower.
- Avoid static work.
- Maintain physical activity.
- Avoid weight gain.
- Avoid dehydration.
- Avoid wearing tight shoes and clothing. Wear wide models, shoes with medium heels - no more than 4 cm.
- Massages and foot baths.
Varicose veins are not a phrase for a woman, but a way in which the body draws attention to itself. The best weapon against disease is timely diagnosis and a healthy lifestyle.