To better understand the problem of varicose veins of the small pelvis in women, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the prerequisites for its development. Equally important is to study the clinical picture, the methods of diagnosis and healing. This will avoid the formation of complications and critical consequences in the future.
Reasons for development
The disease presented in most cases manifests itself in one of the trimesters of pregnancy and, more precisely, with the reverse reflux of blood (reflux) through the ovarian vein. It is also caused by compression of the pelvic vessels or by hormonal changes. Other causes of pathology are hypodynamia, sedentary lifestyle, work, frequent childbirth.
VVMT can develop in female representatives due to:
- genetic diseases of connective structures;
- excessive physical loads;
- inflammatory gynecological pathologies;
- forced production of estrogen;
- sexual dysfunctions.
The list of adverse factors includes features of sexual life, for example, the tendency to stop sexual intercourse or the absence of orgasms. Psychosomatic prerequisites, the influence of stress, are also important. Experts point out the negative effects of HRT and contraceptives. This is supported by the fact that in the postmenopausal period the manifestations of the disease are leveled.
- A change in the menstrual cycle is one of the signs of the disease. Signs of the condition may be an increase in the degree of susceptibility of the skin in the perineum, the sensitivity of the vagina and its mucous membrane.
- The periodic or permanent painful sensations expressed are noteworthy. These symptoms are most intense in the menopausal stage, after ovulation. There may be clear or whitish vaginal discharge. Disease onset is indicated by pain late in pregnancy, during intercourse or closer to the end of the day.
- If a pathology is detected, a slight swelling of the vagina or vulva is identified. There may be gravity, pressure on the problem area, which needs to be treated before complications appear.
Three successive degrees (stages) of development of venous expansion in the pelvic area are identified.
- I graduate- the veins increase in circumference up to five mm, in the upper part of the left ovary they tend to expand. All this is associated with acquired or genetic valvular insufficiency of the structure.
- II degree- the veins reach a circumference of up to 10 mm, capturing the left ovary. In addition, varicose veins of the uterine veins and the right ovary are formed.
- III degree- the veins thicken by more than 10 mm. The varicose veins of the right and left ovaries are approximately proportional. This is associated with pathologies of a gynecological nature - neoplasms.
How is the diagnosis made?
Without diagnosis and expert advice is imperative. Particular attention is paid to differentiation from diagnoses such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, organ prolapse. To confirm the verdict, the reflux area is identified.
That said, consultations with a doctor include:
- vaginal examination,
- dopplerography of blood vessels,
- transuterine phlebography,
- hormone tests.
When diagnosing CVMT in women, the list also includes laparoscopy and CT (computed tomography). Ultrasound is informative using both abdominal and transvaginal sensors. Doppler examination of blood vessels allows you to establish the nuances of blood circulation in internal structures.
With the help of phlebography, the functional capacity of the veins and the real characteristics of the local blood flow, the pathology of the pelvic floor are identified. CT is only prescribed in situations that involve a precise diagnosis. For example, it is introduced to neutralize other pathologies localized in this area (postoperative neuropathy, inflammation of the bladder or large intestine).
How dangerous is IMMT during pregnancy?
For pregnant women, the pathology can be dangerous. This threatens a difficult birth with critical consequences. The thinned walls of the veins are prone to injury and even breakage, causing pain and bleeding.
One of the common diseases of the pelvic veins is the likelihood of blood clots obstructing the vessels, aggravating or creating obstacles to the normal blood supply to the placenta. This leads to aging of the placenta and oxygen starvation of the fetus. At 1 and 2 degrees of pathology, childbirth usually occurs naturally.
Specialists will monitor the pressure indicators, ensuring their decrease and the introduction of anticoagulants (venotonic). Severe (3rd) degree of VVMT suggests a caesarean section, infertility may develop in the future.
An effective method of treating this disease is a complex intervention. The list of measures will improve the functioning of the body, normalize the blood supply system. Use drugs, physical therapy, and special exercises. However, other methods can be effective - they will help avoid critical consequences.
During treatment during pregnancy: given the potential harm to the embryo and the high risks of adverse reactions, drugs are taken no earlier than the second trimester, and only in exceptional cases are suppositories not effective.
Pay attention to the fact that:
- Horse chestnut extract is used to eliminate swelling and inflammation.
- Vitamin C in the form of tablets is important for strengthening the vascular walls.
Rarely, adverse reactions develop, urticaria, mild rashes may appear. Contraindications include hemophilia and the degree of individual intolerance to the components of the drug.
With pelvic varicose veins in women, surgery is an extreme measure used when the pathology is advanced and there are genetic prerequisites for varicose veins in the extremities. The operation is selected based on the place where the main violations were identified. It can involve ligation of the ovarian or pudendal vein. This is provided in conjunction with the perineal miniphlebectomy.
Additionally, ECHO sclerotherapy may be needed. A crossectomy, or operation, is done. It allows you to successfully treat in a situation where the veins of the lower extremities are further affected.
A minimally invasive technique is sclerobliteration or embolization of the ovarian veins. It is performed under angiographic control. As part of the intervention under local anesthesia, a sclerosing agent is introduced into the vascular lumen and an embolization coil may also be installed.
Gymnastics and physical therapy for the disease
Daily gymnastics is mandatory. It includes a whole range of elements, for example it is necessary from a standing position (with feet parallel), to go up to toe and to get down. Repeat no more than 30 times. The next exercise is performed from the same position, with the heels aligned and the socks spread apart. It is necessary to get on and off about 30 times.
The refill will be effective if you perform the following movements: stand straight, spread your heels, aligning your socks. It is necessary to get on the socks 20 to 30 times. It will also be useful to make a "bicycle" or "birch", making sure that during all gymnastics the full extension of the lower limbs is ensured.
It should be remembered that:
- exercises are performed not only at home, but also at work;
- if desired, it is allowed to replace, add or remove elements, it is important to exclude an overload not only of the legs, but also of the body as a whole;
- it is desirable to combine with the use of specialized knitwear, yoga - according to reviews, this will be the most effective measure.
This knitwear guarantees the stabilization of the blood flow and eliminates venous congestion in case of compression of the dilated veins. Current varieties of compression underwear are designed in such a way that the pressure from the ankle to the thigh decreases systematically. The correct mode of distribution of the pressure exerted on the venous system contributes to the normalization and stimulation of blood flow.
The repairing effect is due to the correct functioning of the valve apparatus. The therapy involves a decrease in the dilated lumen of the veins on the legs and thighs. We must not forget the result of the muscle pump, because they contract during physical exertion and the blood begins to flow upwards.
Such underwear is unacceptable to be worn by people with certain disabilities. These are atherosclerosis, ortharteritis, obliterating thrombangiitis. No less harmful effects can be in chronic diseases of the arteries.
Great importance is given to a balanced diet with the exception of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages.
- The menu is recommended to include dishes with a high ratio of fiber, fat of vegetable origin. The main products in the diet should be vegetables, fruits and juices (preferably natural), green tea.
- Not recommended for consumption: sweet pastries, dishes with a considerable amount of spices, fast food.
- Meals should remain frequent, but in small portions. Useful are the names with a high ratio of vitamin C (citrus, black currant), seafood. This list includes oysters, shrimp, and seaweed.
- The dishes of the diet are prepared with a minimum ratio of salt, which would be better to remove from the diet.
Prediction of success in the treatment of PVMT
The prognosis depends on the specific stage of the varicose veins of the pelvic organs, at which the recovery course was started.
- A series of preventive measures in the early stages stops the development or progression of the disease. It is a course of treatment with venotonics twice a year and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle by practicing sports. You will have to respect them for life.
- In the later stages (when diagnosing a pronounced degree of deformity, nodular neoplasms, swelling and symptoms of oxygen starvation of tissue structures), there is an attachment of comorbidities. Most often it is diabetes or obesity. For the purpose of prevention, you will need to follow the recommendations of a specialist, namely, be examined in a timely manner, use drugs and reduce body weight.
With the development of diabetes, complications of varicose veins are identified in 89% of cases (thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcerative lesions, hemorrhoids). In general, the disease is not life-threatening, but its complications can lead to the inability to give birth, significantly worsen the quality of life and prognosis.