Varicose veins of the lower limbs

Varicose veins or varicose vein disease is a extension of superficial veins, associated with venous insufficiency of the valves and of the violation of the circulation of the blood. This disease is the most common of the vascular pathology in people of working age.

The causes of varicose vein disease

veins of the legs

Traditionally, sheds light on the risk factors for the development and progression of the disease. Heredity and its contribution in the appearance of the varicose disease is not clearly proven. Noticed that, in some families, in a number of generations constantly occurs in varicose veins, but it is now believed that the predominant role in the onset of the disease factors play food, a particular way of life, as well as the health associated with changes in the menstrual cycle.

Obesity is one of the main risk factors of the disease. The frequency of development of varicose vein disease increases with the increase in the degree of severity of obesity. Often obesity is accompanied by a fixed or a sedentary lifestyle and a poor diet. In the diet of the population in industrialized countries, which is currently dominated by products highly processed, but it remains an inadequate intake of plant fibers, which are contained in fruits and vegetables. Plant fibers are needed to strengthen the vascular wall, in addition, they prevent chronic constipation, which, in turn, leads to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure and the formation of varicose veins.

It is not necessary to forget about the bad organization of the work process. Often, a large part of the time we spend in a sitting or standing position, and this is very bad for the valve apparatus veins. Also unfavorable is heavy work-related, with a load on the lower limbs, for example, when you lift weights. In the dynamic times of the few become long flights or travel, which are accompanied by the appearance of the stagnation of the blood in the veins of the legs, and are also a risk factor for development of venous diseases.

Respecting the trends of fashion, many do not think that a lingerie leads to compression of veins at the level of the folds of the groin, and corsets will increase the abdominal pressure, therefore, is not recommended to wear them at all times. Also do not forget about the dangers of wearing high-heeled shoes uncomfortable foot support.

Repeated pregnancies are also proven to be a risk factor for development of venous diseases. Hypertrophy of the uterus increases the intra-abdominal pressure, and this hormone, such as progesterone has a negative effect on the wall of a vein, destroying it contains collagen and elastic fibers. Some diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, proceed to the modification of the hormonal status. The risk of occurrence of varicose vein disease increases dramatically.

spider veins

The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs

As you can guess from the title, one of the main visible sign of the varicose disease is considered as saccular or cylindrical extension of the surface of the vein.

They become retorta, projecting above the surface of the skin on the legs and feet. Maximize the varicose veins are expressed after heavy or long exercise. Very often, dilated veins appear in young age, in women during or after pregnancy.

Early varicose veins, the symptoms are few and non-specific. All the signs of this phase are combined in "the syndrome of the feet heavy". When this concern is fatigue, a feeling of heaviness in the legs, burning, bursting, the severity of which is maximum after the exercise. Can also occur ephemeral swelling, a throbbing pain over the vein. During this feature a little swelling of the ankle and the back of the foot that occurs in the evening, especially after a long static load. The characteristic sign of edema, is that in the morning, they leave without a trace. During this phase are not necessarily visible varicose veins. Generally, most of the patients with varicose disease is shown in the beginning of the disease the presence of certain signs. Therefore, the timely treatment to a specialist even at an early stage of the disease will prevent the further development of the disease.

Particular attention should be given to the consideration of the question of the vascular gear", as on the importance of a symptom of venous insufficiency. "Veins" is a spider's web extent of more than 0.1 mm of capillary, visible through the skin.

Generally, women see these "stars" such as cosmetic defects, men are simply not noticed. In fact, in some cases, they are manifestations of dishormonal violations, abuse of a sauna, a solarium, avoidance of the high temperatures and the elimination of hormonal imbalances (for example, the use of oral contraceptives) will completely cure the disease. But, in most cases, the emergence of a "spider" is the first and may be the only sign of an overflow of the superficial veins and development of varicose disease. Therefore, even if a small area extended capillary of the grid need the consultation of a specialist.

complications

Complications of varicose veins

Varicose veins - is not only a cosmetic problem, but a dangerous illness, mainly because of its complications. When a bad or a case of failure of the treatment is to develop these terrible of the state, such as thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, as well as bleeding of the varicose veins. Thrombosis (total or partial closure of the lumen thrombus of the vein) or thrombophlebitis (inflammatory disease of the wall of the vein thrombosis) arises suddenly, is not related to physical exercise. The swelling spreads rapidly on the lower member, which is accompanied by strong arching pain. Redness or blue, the pain of the skin. In the case of the separation of a blood clot, with a current of blood, it enters the blood vessels of the lungs, and in the case of a total or partial closure of the container is capable of causing serious disease - a pulmonary embolism. This complication is often fatal. In case of suspicion on the data of the complications of the varicose disease, you should immediately take a horizontal position, lift the leg up, through telephone contact with the doctor. Do not compress the leg muscles, use ointments, to walk on the foot.

Dangerous, and is considered to be the trauma to the area of dilated vessels, as there may be profuse bleeding. In this case, an urgent need to impose a leg over the seat of the bleeding beam (medical or improvised), hard enough that the bleeding stopped. It is also urgent to cause an emergency relief team.

During the detection of at least one of these signs the inspection phlebologist - specialist in diseases of the veins, and, if necessary, consultation with other specialists, e.g. vascular surgeon, a doctor, a gynecologist.

The diagnosis of varicose veins

When you go to a doctor, you will probably be invited to the next survey:

  • Analysis of the blood. The number of red blood cells and the hemoglobin says something about the extent of blood clots, according to the level of pads, you can judge the disease of the coagulation of the blood (tendency to thrombosis), the increase in the number of leukocytes characterized by inflammation (confirmed thrombophlebitis).
  • The gold standard for the diagnosis of varicose illness is considered an ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower extremities, in which are defined the affected areas of the vein. On this, in principle, on the anatomy and classification of the varicose disease, indicating altered the container. For example, the defeat of the great saphenous vein above or below the knee, the small saphenous vein. ULTRASOUND of the vessels of the lower limbs recommended in the detection of these signs of varicose disease, even when the appearance of spider veins".
  • Reovazografija - method for the determination of the failure the blood (power) of the tissue by the calculation of the rheographic index. On the basis of this indicator reveals the stage of the disease: compensation, subcompensation or decompensation.
  • When the questionable data non-invasive methods have resorted to surgical methods of the study, for example, by intravenous angiography (intravenous injection of a contrast medium for the assessment of the state of the venous system).
treatment

The treatment of varicose veins

The treatment of varicose vein disease is a complex process whose duration depends on the stage of the disease. The therapeutic measures are divided into surgical and conservative (non-surgical).

Non-surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs gives good results as in the beginning of the disease, when the skin manifestations not pronounced and only moderately reduces the work capacity. Also conservative treatment is indicated in the cons-indications to surgical treatment. In addition, these methods must be used in the postoperative period to prevent recurrence of the disease.

The conservative treatment includes the reduction of the expressiveness of the risk factors for adequate physical activity, elastic compression, medications, and physiotherapy. The application of these events in collaboration guarantees a good result. In collaboration with the specialist is necessary to identify the risk factors of varicose veins, for example, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, incorrect exercise, and try to influence them.

People who have risk factors for the development of varicose disease, including the prdisposition hrditaire, even in the absence of the symptoms of the disease, you need to be at least two times per year refer to phlebologist mandatory to perform an ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower limbs.

Elastic compression - a method of treatment of the varicose disease by elastic bandage or the use of the care of the hosiery. This creates the progressive crushing of the muscles. This contributes to a better blood circulation in the veins, prevents stagnation. Thanks to the artificially maintain the "tone" of vienna continue to grow, it creates the prevention of thrombosis.

At all stages of development of varicose disease recommended the use of drug-phlebotonics. Their action aims to strengthen the walls of veins. The course of long-term treatment, 6 months and more. Also presented are the drugs that reduce the viscosity of the blood - platelet aggregation inhibiting drugs, anti-inflammatory.

None of the folk remedies is to say, herbs, non-compars on the efficacy of these drugs, you should not self-give medications. The drug therapy must be used only on doctor's prescription. The local treatment, for example, ointments, gels, is not recommended in the absence of thrombosis, thrombophlebitis.

The physiotherapy did not self-importance. Applies only by the doctor according to the main problem. The application of physical methods at home by yourself can lead to the development of a complication (the accession of inflammation, the removal of a blood clot). In the case of a good destination, the best effect have diadynamic currents, magnetic field, electrophoresis, laser.

phlebectomy

Varicose veins of the lower limbs - surgical disease, complete healing of that is only possible after a surgical treatment. Depending on the location of the lesions and the severity of the disease apply the methods of surgical treatment.

1. Phlebectomy - the rapid removal of varicose veins-scope of vienna. The objective of this operation is to eliminate the disease of reset of the blood by the removal of the base of trunks of large or small saphenous vein, so that ligation of communicating veins. This operation is contra-indicated in cases of:

  • difficult to cover the disease, in which surgical intervention may significantly worsen the situation;
  • the later phase of varicose veins;
  • of the pregnancy;
  • the presence in the body of any process purulent;
  • the elderly.

2. The hardening - introduction to the extent of the vein of a specific substance (sclerosant) which causes "sticking" to the wall of the vein with the blood flow arrest. A result of lack abnormal discharge of blood, eliminates cosmetic defects, such as vienna sagging and becomes invisible. But sclerotherapy is effective only during the expansion of the small branches of the base of the trunks, which limits its use during the great expressiveness of process. The advantage of sclerotherapy is the lack of scars, the need for hospitalization. After sclerosing veins particular rehabilitation is not necessary.

3. Laser Photocoagulation - a method based on the destruction of the vein wall by means of a hot, laser, resulting in a "glutino bonum is" venous of the light. Shows only during the expansion of vienna is not more than 10 mm of the Method related to the conduct of anesthesia. Cosmetically is preferable compared to phlebectomy, but how, and after the deletion of vienna requires early activation of the patient and long-term elastic compression.

The prevention of varicose veins

In the modern world a huge importance to the prevention of the varicose disease. The regular performance of simple activities will greatly reduce the risk of onset and progression of the disease:

prevention
  • The mobile lifestyle - the foundation of prevention, it is also important alternating pattern of long duration of the static load of walking, jogging, biking, swimming, performing simple exercises in the workplace.
  • How can you more time to keep the foot in an elevated position.
  • Do not allow the increase of the mass of the body.
  • Wear comfortable shoes with a maximum heel of 4 cm, and the need to use orthotics.
  • In the case of the use of estrogen, for example, oral contraceptives, and during pregnancy necessarily have to have an ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower limbs.